Our genetic information is key to making some of the most critical decisions in our lives. There are diseases that we can prevent, and the DNA Health Test can help us identify them.
Know your genetic predisposition with a DNA health test!
Prevention and early diagnosis can multiply success rates by 5 to 10 times in treating many diseases. Your genomics will tell you where to focus. By analysing your genetic map, we obtain essential information to make the best decisions regarding your health and well-being.
Download our sample Health report.
Reports available in English, French, Italian, Polish, Spanish and German.
Our genetic health report is possibly the most comprehensive DNA test on the market.
We analyse more than 700,000 genetic markers. From these, we extract results based on the most prestigious genetic research using complex algorithms.
We study the ancestral roots in the DNA. These constitute the genetic inheritance of the person and serve to be able to apply these algorithms correctly. The calculation of genetic predisposition may vary according to ethnic origin. For example, the risk of skin cancer is not calculated in the same way for a person of African origin as it is for a person of Scandinavian origin. 24Genetics is possibly the only company in Europe that performs this ancestral roots analysis before applying the algorithms correctly.
Our algorithm also allows us to analyse whether the DNA belongs to a man or a woman.
In this way, we can apply the research that best suits each individual.
The reports we provide offer as much practical information as possible from the genetic data available in the test. For many diseases, we report the pathogenic mutations, or lack thereof, of only part of the genes involved (the ones we can see in the test). This means that the disease may be present in areas that we are not testing for. The genetic information provided by 24Genetics is not valid for clinical or diagnostic use. If any of your doctors or health professionals are especially concerned about a particular mutation detected, they will prescribe a second genetic test for clinical use to confirm these mutations. The 24Genetics tests serve, among other things, to bring to light very relevant information that is usually overlooked.
An example of a 24Genetics health test result report is available on this page.
Genetics gives us a lot of information.
And the 24Genetics DNA Test offers 7 detailed reports with multiple data for each of these 7 categories. We should not confuse talent or personal characteristics with pathologies or diseases. In particular, our DNA Health Test provides an exclusive health report. Detailing a multitude of diseases and accompanied by information on drug compatibility.
With the 24Genetics DNA Health Test, you can get an overview of a large number of pathologies at an affordable price. Thanks to these tests and as a genetic counsellor, we can be a valuable approach to understanding your genes. If you need a diagnosis of a specific disease, there are DNA tests that analyse the entire gene or genes involved in that disease or phenotype. These are also valid for clinical use. If you have a family history, we recommend that you consult your doctor or geneticist to consider the need for such a test.
With the knowledge of DNA, we can prevent the transmission of several monogenic diseases to our future children.
Some of these diseases may be present in our genes and not have manifested themselves in us. But it is possible that they may manifest in our children and grandchildren. With our DNA Health Test, we can identify many of them and act accordingly. In addition, there are techniques to prevent some of these diseases from being passed on to our offspring.
But having our genetic information can also be the first step towards personalized medicine. Each person should receive medical treatments in a different way. Medicines that are very effective for some people are not effective for others. One of the keys to deciphering which treatments will be best for each person lies in their genes. Our DNA Health Test includes data on genetic predisposition to dozens of medications. It can therefore help your doctor prescribe the most appropriate drugs for you. The importance of a genetic counsellor like 24Genetics Spain is essential for your genetic analysis and personalized medicine.
24Genetics DNA tests are preventive.
We perform the tests by analysing a part of the genetic variants of the organism (about 700,000 out of a total of 3.2 billion). Therefore, they have no clinical or diagnostic validity. Having a predisposition to suffer from a disease or pathology does not mean that you will definitely suffer from it. Many other external (environmental) and lifestyle factors play a role. Similarly, a disease for which no predisposition is indicated may develop.
Furthermore, there may be mutations in gene regions that we do not analyse. For this reason, at 24Genetics, we always recommend consulting a medical professional or geneticist to go deeper into specific areas, especially when there is a family history. And to carry out a diagnostic DNA test, in case the professionals recommend it.
What will you find in the 24Genetics Health Report?
We analyse your genetic predisposition to hundreds of diseases, grouped into the following types:
Complex Diseases: GWAS
For this part of our report, we apply GWAS publications, a type of study that compares the DNA markers of people with a disease with people without the disease in order to identify genetic differences. These studies can be beneficial for prevention and early diagnosis, as they are not a diagnostic tool but indicate what to look out for.
It is essential to bear in mind that many factors influence complex diseases, genetics being only one part; lifestyle, diet, etc… are in many cases the most influential.
Complex diseases: mutations
In this section, we analyse the mutations of the most important genes from an oncological point of view. We specifically look for mutations reported as pathogenic in the main scientific communities.
Biomarkers, biometrics and traits
In this section, we again use GWAS statistical analyses to calculate your genetic predisposition to have abnormal levels of specific metabolic parameters.
We analyse genetic mutations that can cause inherited diseases that can be transmitted to your future children. You can be a carrier of some of them and never have suffered from them, but there is a risk that your future offspring will suffer from them. These are primarily single-gene diseases.
Genetic testing for hereditary diseases of both the future father and the future mother before the baby is conceived is the smartest move to minimise the chances of our children suffering from such diseases. If such diseases run in your family, genetic testing is essential. With the data in hand, a geneticist will be able to give you guidelines on how to act. If you want to know more about this subject, read our blog article “How genetics can help you have healthier children”.
We will analyse the mutations that predispose us to feel better or worse when using certain drugs, and this will help our doctors to choose the most suitable ones for us. So your pharmacological analysis will be your first step towards personalized medicine.
24Genetics genetic tests are not valid for clinical or diagnostic use. However, if your doctor considers a mutation found in our reports to be relevant, the usual practice is to prescribe a specific genetic diagnostic test to corroborate these mutations.
These are some of the diseases you will find in our report:
|Alopecia areata||Kabuki Syndrome 1|
|Intracranial aneurysm||Leigh Syndrome|
|Rheumatoid arthritis||Leopard Syndrome 1|
|Asthma (childhood onset)||Leukoencephalopathy With Vanishing White Matter|
|Chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease||Lissencephaly 1|
|Breast cancer||Loeys-Dietz Syndrome 2|
|Non-melanoma skin cancer||Long Qt Syndrome 1|
|Prostate cancer||Maple Syrup Urine Disease|
|Prostate cancer aggressiveness||Maturity-Onset Diabetes Of The Young, Type 2|
|Prostate cancer (early onset)||Maturity-Onset Diabetes Of The Young, Type 3|
|Bladder cancer||Meckel Syndrome, Type 3|
|Upper aerodigestive tract cancers||Mental Retardation And Microcephaly With Pontine And Cerebellar Hypoplasia|
|Basal cell carcinoma||Metachromatic Leukodystrophy|
|Squamous cell carcinoma||Methylmalonic Aciduria And Homocystinuria, Cblc Type|
|Motion sickness||Methylmalonic Aciduria, Cbla Type|
|Primary biliary cirrhosis||Methylmalonic Aciduria, Cblb Type|
|Age-related macular degeneration||Mitochondrial Complex Iii Deficiency, Nuclear Type 1|
|Conduct disorder||Mucopolysaccharidosis Type Vi|
|Type 1 diabetes||Mucopolysaccharidosis, Type Vii|
|Type 1 diabetes nephropathy||Mucopolysaccharidosis, Type Iiia|
|Type 1 diabetes autoantibodies||Mucopolysaccharidosis, Type Iiib|
|Type 2 diabetes||Mucopolysaccharidosis, Type Iva|
|Endometriosis||Muscular Dystrophy-Dystroglycanopathy (Congenital With Brain And Eye Anomalies), Type A, 1|
|Celiac disease||Myopathy, Myofibrillar, 1|
|Alzheimer’s disease (late onset)||Myopathy, Centronuclear, X-Linked|
|Coronary heart disease||Myopathy Centronuclear|
|Parkinson’s disease||Nemaline Myopathy 2|
|Multiple sclerosis||Cystinosis, Nephropathic|
|Systemic sclerosis||Niemann-Pick Disease, Type C1|
|Schizophrenia||Niemann-Pick Disease, Type A|
|Glioma||Niemann-Pick Disease, Type B|
|Hypothyroidism||Noonan Syndrome 1|
|Myocardial infarction (early onset)||Noonan Syndrome-Like Disorder With Or Without Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia|
|Chronic lymphocytic leukemia||Noonan Syndrome 4|
|Hodgkin’s lymphoma||Obesity Due To Melanocortin 4 Receptor Deficiency|
|Diffuse large B cell lymphoma||Albinism, Oculocutaneous, Type Ib|
|Follicular lymphoma||Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Type Iii|
|Myasthenia gravis||Diabetes Mellitus, Permanent Neonatal|
|Multiple myeloma||Pitt-Hopkins Syndrome|
|Neuroblastoma||Polymicrogyria, Bilateral Frontoparietal|
|Osteosarcoma||Microcephaly 3, Primary, Autosomal Recessive|
|Psoriasis||Microcephaly 5, Primary, Autosomal Recessive|
|Allergic sensitization||MICROCEPHALY 9, PRIMARY, AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE; MCPH9|
|Testicular germ cell tumor||Retinitis Pigmentosa|
|Wilms tumor||Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome 1|
|Vitiligo||Sotos Syndrome 1|
|17-Beta Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Iii Deficiency||Supravalvular Aortic Stenosis|
|3-Methylcrotonyl-Coa Carboxylase 1 Deficiency||Tay-Sachs Disease|
|3-Methylcrotonyl-Coa Carboxylase 2 Deficiency||Tuberous Sclerosis 1|
|Aarskog-Scott Syndrome||Tuberous Sclerosis 2|
|Achromatopsia 2||Albinism, Oculocutaneous, Type Ia|
|Leukemia, Acute Myeloid||Tyrosinemia, Type I|
|Adrenoleukodystrophy||Usher Syndrome, Type I|
|Hypophosphatasia, Adult||Usher Syndrome, Type Id|
|Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome||Usher Syndrome, Type If|
|Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Deficiency||Usher Syndrome, Type Iia|
|Amyloidosis, Hereditary, Transthyretin-Related||Usher Syndrome, Type Iic|
|Anemia, Nonspherocytic Hemolytic, Due To G6Pd Deficiency||Usher Syndrome, Type Iid|
|Angelman Syndrome||Usher Syndrome, Type Iiia|
|Antithrombin Iii Deficiency||Acyl-Coa Dehydrogenase, Very Long-Chain, Deficiency Of|
|Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia, Familial, 10||Weaver Syndrome|
|Auriculocondylar Syndrome 1||Wilson Disease|
|Hypophosphatemic Rickets, Autosomal Dominant||Agammaglobulinemia, X-Linked|
|Bardet-Biedl Syndrome 1||Severe Combined Immunodeficiency, X-Linked|
|Muscular Dystrophy, Becker Type||Adiponectin levels|
|Seizures, Benign Familial Neonatal, 1||Alcoholism (alcohol dependence factor score)|
|Bloom Syndrome||Aortic root size|
|Brugada Syndrome 1||Beta-2 microglubulin plasma levels|
|Cardiofaciocutaneous Syndrome 1||Bilirubin levels|
|Cardiofaciocutaneous Syndrome 1||Bone mineral density|
|Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 1S||C-reactive protein|
|Cardiomyopathy, Familial Hypertrophic, 1||Calcium levels|
|Ceroid Lipofuscinosis, Neuronal, 1||Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate levels|
|CEROID LIPOFUSCINOSIS, NEURONAL, 2; CLN2||Eosinophil counts|
|Ceroid Lipofuscinosis, Neuronal, 7||Spirometric measure of pulmonary function (Forced vital capacity)|
|Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease, Type 4C||Glycated hemoglobin levels|
|Chondrodysplasia Punctata 1, X-Linked Recessive||Glycerophospholipid levels|
|Granulomatous Disease, Chronic, X-Linked||Heart rate|
|Adrenal Hypoplasia, Congenital||Homocysteine levels|
|Retinitis Pigmentosa 39||IgE levels|
|Night Blindness, Congenital Stationary, Type 1C||Liver enzyme levels (gamma-glutamyl transferase)|
|Cornelia De Lange Syndrome 1||Liver enzyme levels|
|Costello Syndrome||Magnesium levels|
|Cystic Fibrosis||Menopause (age at onset)|
|Danon Disease||Monocyte count|
|DEAFNESS, AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE 12; DFNB12||Neutrophil count|
|Deafness, Autosomal Recessive 1A||Phospholipid levels (plasma)|
|Deafness, Autosomal Recessive 31||Phosphorus levels|
|Deafness, Autosomal Recessive 7||Plasma omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels (dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid)|
|Deafness, Autosomal Recessive 9||Platelet count|
|Mannosidosis, Alpha B, Lysosomal||Red blood cell count|
|Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 1A||Resting heart rate|
|Dubin-Johnson Syndrome||Serum albumin level|
|Epileptic Encephalopathy, Early Infantile, 2||Serum total protein level|
|Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy 1, X-Linked||Sex hormone levels|
|Myoclonic Epilepsy Of Lafora||Smoking behavior|
|Erythrocytosis, Familial, 2||Thyroid hormone levels|
|Fabry Disease||Uric acid levels|
|Familial Adenomatous Polyposis 1||Urinary uromodulin levels|
|Cardiomyopathy, Familial Hypertrophic, 2||Vitamin B levels in ischemic stroke|
|Familial Mediterranean Fever||White blood cell count|
|Thyroid Carcinoma, Familial Medullary||APC: colorectal and pancreatic cancer|
|Fanconi Anemia, Complementation Group A||ATM: breast cancer|
|Fanconi Anemia, Complementation Group O||BARD1: breast cancer|
|Nephrotic Syndrome, Type 1||BRCA1: breast and ovarian cancer|
|Gaucher Disease, Type I||BRCA2: breast and ovarian cancer|
|Glycogen Storage Disease Ib||BRIP1: breast cancer|
|Glut1 Deficiency Syndrome 1||CDH1: breast and gastric cancer|
|Glutaric Acidemia I||CDKN2A: pancreatic cancer|
|Multiple Acyl-Coa Dehydrogenase Deficiency||CHEK2: breast and colorectal cancer|
|Glycogen Storage Disease Ia||MLH1: Lynch syndrome|
|Glycogen Storage Disease Ii||MSH2: Lynch syndrome and colorectal cancer|
|Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis, Familial, 2||MSH6: Lynch syndrome and colorectal cancer|
|Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome 3||MUTYH: MYH-associated polyposis and colorectal cancer|
|Histiocytosis-Lymphadenopathy Plus Syndrome||PALB2: breast and pancreatic cancer|
|Ectodermal Dysplasia 1, Hypohidrotic, X-Linked||PMS2: Lynch syndrome and colorectal cancer|
|Jervell And Lange-Nielsen Syndrome 1||PTEN: breast, uterine and colorectal cancer|
|Joubert Syndrome 10||RAD51C: ovarian cancer|
|Joubert Syndrome 14||RAD51D: ovarian cancer|
|Joubert Syndrome 16||SDHB: gastric cancer|
|Joubert Syndrome 3||SMAD4: juvenile polyposis syndrome and colorectal cancer|
|Joubert Syndrome 5||TP53: Li-Fraumeni syndrome, breast cancer and more|
|Joubert Syndrome 7||VHL: Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome|
|Joubert Syndrome 8||RET: thyroid carcinoma|
|Joubert Syndrome 9|
HOW CAN I DO THIS DNA HEALTH TEST?
It’s straightforward. You will receive a DNA kit to place a small amount of saliva in. Click here to watch a video before using the kit. After following the simple instructions, send the sample back to us. In a specialised laboratory, we will extract the DNA from the saliva you have sent us. We will then perform a process in which we can read what is written in about 700,000 markers in your DNA. After a complex computer analysis, our algorithms apply the latest genetic studies, which generates the report that we put in your hands.
WHAT DOES THE 24GENETICS GENETIC TEST CONSIST OF?
It is very simple. We will send a kit to your home. In it, you can deposit some of your saliva following some simple instructions. Once we receive the kit back, we will extract the DNA from your cells. We will read about 700,000 genetic markers or polymorphisms on high-tech sequencers. Then, our proprietary algorithms will analyse your DNA. They will then apply the most relevant scientific knowledge to generate the reports you have contracted.
CAN I MAKE DRASTIC CHANGES TO MY HEALTH CARE ON MY OWN BECAUSE OF THIS TEST'S RESULTS?
Our reports provide data on the genetic predispositions of your body. But there are many other external factors, environmental factors or habits that influence it. For this reason, we consider our reports to be preventive, not diagnostic. Our recommendation is always to consult medical professionals for any doubts that may arise from your genetic report. Therefore, the answer is no. It would be best if you did not make significant changes without professional validation.
IS THIS TEST AVAILABLE IN MY COUNTRY?
We ship our DNA kits free of charge to any country in the world. You can choose return shipment by post (you would have to send it to us) or express collection (may have an additional cost depending on the product and country). We have many warehouses around the world, so that we will ship your order from the closest possible location. USA, Spain or France always have free return shipping. In addition, some of our packs enjoy free express delivery worldwide.
ARE ALL GENETIC TESTS OF THE SAME QUALITY?
Our genetic test is possibly the most complete and of the highest quality on the market.
On the one hand, we must take the quality of the technology used in DNA sequencing into account. From the saliva kit to the sequencers. At 24Genetics, we use the best sequencing technology from Illumina in Europe. As a result, each and every component used in our services are of the highest quality available on the market.
On the other hand, there is the quality and quantity of information we can offer in our reports. For example, we are the only company able to offer 7 different reports from a genetic test. These are our reports: Ancestry, Nutrigenetics, Health, Pharmacogenetics, Talent and Personality, Skin Care and Sport. Each of them is a benchmark in the sector for the quality and quantity of information provided. For example, we are the only ones able to show biometric data, complex diseases and apply different algorithms depending on the gender and ethnicity of our clients.
In short, we can say that our genetic tests are two years ahead of the other genetic tests available on the market.
DOES IT ALL DEPEND ON MY GENES?
No. The body responds to a whole series of conditioning factors. Our genes are certainly an important parameter. But lifestyle, such as exercise and diet, and many other circumstances influence our bodies. Without a doubt, knowing yourself well helps you to treat your body in the most appropriate way. And this is what you can get from genetics: more knowledge for you and for the professionals who care for your health.
WHY IS THIS GENETIC HEALTH PREVENTION TEST BETTER THAN OTHERS?
24Genetics genetic tests are considered the best in their category because of the information’s quantity and quality. You only have to compare the number of sections of our test with any other on the market, and you will see that we provide much more data. And not only about diseases, but it also provides biometric predispositions, biomarkers, pharmacogenetics and much more relevant information for your health care, data that the rest of the genetic health tests on the market do not have. In addition, our algorithms are two years ahead of the rest because we apply more scientifically validated research than the rest, and we apply them more intelligently. For example, our algorithm chooses which studies apply to you, depending on whether you are male or female, and only if the study is validated in a population similar to yours (Asian, European, etc.). And suppose there are several consolidated studies on the same pathology, then our algorithm is able to combine them to offer you the most complete and valuable personalized genetic information for your doctors. If you want to know all the reasons why our genetic tests are considered the best on the market, click here.
WHAT IS THIS DNA HEALTH TESTBASED ON?
This DNA health test is based on thousands of genetic studies recognised and accepted internationally by the scientific community. When there is a certain level of consensus, the scientific studies are made public in specific databases through scientific institutions and organisations. Our genetic reports are carried out by applying these studies to the genetic data of each client. This is done using a complex algorithm developed by 24Genetics.
WHAT WILL I GET OUT OF THE DNA HEALTH TEST?
We will send you a detailed and personalized report to the email address you provided when registering your DNA kit. In addition, upon request, we can send you at any time, not only when you place your order, your electronic raw data file, which contains your genetic map.
WHAT CAN I DO TO KEEP MY REPORT UP TO DATE?
When we design a new feature for inclusion in one of our reports, we conduct various tests before making it public. When the time comes, we will let you know through our communication channels.
WHO CAN TAKE THIS DNA HEALTH TEST?
Anyone, regardless of age, can take our genetic test. However, if the test is to be carried out on a baby or an elderly person, you can specify this when you place your order. We will send you a special kit that facilitates the collection of the saliva sample. In the case of minors, the authorisation of the parent or guardian is required.
IS THIS DNA HEALTH TEST VALID FOR CLINICAL OR DIAGNOSTIC USE?
No, this DNA health test is not valid for clinical or diagnostic use. However, if your doctor considers that a mutation reflected in our report is relevant to your health, they may prescribe a clinically valid test to confirm the pathology in question. 24Genetics tests are preventive, and their main purpose is to alert you to genetic issues that are usually overlooked.
IF MY REPORT SAYS THAT I HAVE A HIGH GENETIC PREDISPOSITION TO SUFFER FROM A CERTAIN DISEASE, DOES THAT MEAN THAT I WILL SUFFER FROM IT SOONER OR LATER?
Us people are our genetics and our experiences.
Apart from your genes, many other environmental and internal factors influence whether or not you develop a disease. So you can be genetically prone to a pathology and never develop it due to environmental issues, health habits, lifestyle… But you can also have no predisposition and suffer from a particular disease at some point in your life.
Furthermore, depending on the pathology, genetics can have a greater or lesser influence on the onset or development of a disease.
Knowledge of our genetics allows health professionals to carry out their work with much more information. And it also makes it possible to design prevention plans that can make a difference.
IF, FOR A PARTICULAR DISEASE, MY REPORT SAYS I AM NOT PRONE TO IT, DOES THAT MEAN I AM NOT AT RISK?
Most diseases do not depend on our genes alone. They also depend on countless internal and external factors that can cause them. In addition, our DNA health test has partial information about your genome. We are not sequencing your whole genome but only a part of it. It is possible that we may only be analysing a percentage of the genes that may be involved in a specific pathology. This does not exclude the possibility that you may carry other mutations associated with that pathology in other gene regions that we do not analyse or that are not currently known.
There are genetic tests for clinical or diagnostic use that analyse all the genes involved in a given pathology or disease and which a medical service can prescribe if it is appropriate. And, of course, multiple environmental factors must always be taken into account. These can also have a high degree of influence on the possibility of developing diseases.
Our tests are not valid for clinical or diagnostic use. Therefore, if you have any doubts, we always recommend that you consult your doctors so that they can prescribe the appropriate clinical genetic tests.
I HAVE HAD A BONE MARROW TRANSPLANT; COULD THIS AFFECT MY TEST RESULTS?
The genetic test results may be altered, so we do not recommend that you take the test.
DOES MY GENETIC PREDISPOSITION TO SUFFER FROM CERTAIN PATHOLOGIES MEAN THAT MY RELATIVES ALSO HAVE THEM?
The genetics of each person is unique. Therefore, we always recommend that you consult with your clinical reference service about the decisions to be taken in terms of health. However, in genetics, many of the expressed patterns are often related to those of close relatives. So it would be expected for the reports to be quite similar. But bear in mind that many external factors also influence whether or not you develop a disease. Therefore, the probability of suffering from a disease will differ among relatives with different lifestyles, health habits, places of residence, etc…
SOME OF THE STUDIES ON WHICH OUR DNA TEST FOR HEALTH IS BASED.
24Genetics genetic tests are based on thousands of genetic research studies agreed by the international scientific community. Our system selects the research that applies to you (depending on your gender and ethnicity). If there is more than one, our algorithm combines them to provide you with the most helpful information for your health and well-being. Here are some examples of genetic research used:
- Ahmed S et al; Newly discovered breast cancer susceptibility loci on 3p24 and 17q23; Nat Genet; 2009 May;41(5):585-90.
- Cox A et al; A common coding variant in CASP8 disassociated with breast cancer risk; Nat Genet; 2007 Mar;39(3):352-8.
- Dickson C et al; Tyrosine kinase signalling in breast cancer: fibroblast growth factors and their receptors; Breast Cancer Res; 2000;2(3):191-6.
- Easton DF et al; Genome-wide association study identifies novel breast cancer susceptibility loci; Nature; 2007 Jun28;447(7148):1087-93.
- Hunter DJ et al; A genome-wide association study identifies alleles in FGFR2 associated with risk of sporadic postmenopausal breast cancer; Nat Genet; 2007 Jul;39(7):870-4.
- Chang YK et al; Association of BANK1 and TNFSF4 with systemic lupus erythematosus in Hong Kong Chinese; Genes Immun.; 2009; 10(5):414-20.